First, the agreement aims to obtain quasi-universal measures and participation from countries. It will apply to all parts of the UNFCCC – including major emerging economies such as India and China – instead of requiring emission reductions only from industrialized countries, as was the case in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. In addition, national climate targets, which are associated with countries rather than with the agreement, will be more political than legal and will be defined at the national level. “This structure has put many countries on the line,” said Todd Stern, U.S. Special Envoy for Climate Change and a leading U.S. negotiator for the Paris Agreement. The Paris agreement addressed one of the main points of disagreement that limited the impact of the Kyoto Protocol, that is, the refusal of developing countries to engage in the same boat as the industrialized world, on the basis of their belief that the countries of the North are responsible for the historic construction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The problem was solved by the realization that countries are moving at different rates and that the North needs to provide financial support. Under the agreement, the developed world will provide $100 billion in climate finance to developing countries each year, an amount considered “land.” A new funding target will be set by 2025. The alliance of small island states and least developed countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most affected by the negative effects of climate change, has taken the initiative to address losses and damage as a particular theme of the Paris Agreement.  However, developed countries were concerned that looking at the issue as a separate issue that goes beyond adaptation would create additional climate funding or imply legal responsibility for catastrophic climate events. However, the like-minded bloc of developing countries, including China and India, has attempted to place a widening gap in each theme of the agreement, including reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the accountability framework and financing.